By injecting the micro-grafts in the affected area these cells are able to perceive the microenvironment that surrounds them. Bernardo et al 2013 demonstrates that progenitor cells in vivo are sensors of inflammation and can adopt a pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotype by interfering with innate and adaptive immune responses.
In addition, Penn et al 2009 and Aggarwal et al 2006 have demonstrated that in vivo progenitor cells secrete massive levels of bioactive agents such as growth factors, cytokines and chemokines, which are immunomodulatory and trophic factors.
To understand the therapeutic potential of micro-grafts, it is crucial to understand that the role of progenitor cells is to modify the tissue homeostasis where they are included, as well as inflammation. This causes a substantial increase in the regenerative capacity of the progenitor cells of the tissue.